Augmentation Research Papers

Augmentation Research Papers-42
Particularly, we consider human enhancement applications in the areas of communication, cognitive enhancement, memory, decision making, attention monitoring/enhancement, situation awareness, social interactions, and complex problem solving. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2004.834629 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Khaliliardali, Z., Chavarriaga, R., Gheorghe, L. We cover some of the cognitive augmentation technology (language in particular) aimed at restoring lost functions in severely disable individuals, as those technologies may one day develop to the point of augmenting able-bodied and able-minded people.

Particularly, we consider human enhancement applications in the areas of communication, cognitive enhancement, memory, decision making, attention monitoring/enhancement, situation awareness, social interactions, and complex problem solving. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2004.834629 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Khaliliardali, Z., Chavarriaga, R., Gheorghe, L. We cover some of the cognitive augmentation technology (language in particular) aimed at restoring lost functions in severely disable individuals, as those technologies may one day develop to the point of augmenting able-bodied and able-minded people.

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Such processes encompass attention, the formation of knowledge, memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision making, as well as the comprehension and production of language.

For these reasons, unlike previous efforts, here we choose to review applications of these technologies by the cognitive function they augment (more on this below). In section 2, we survey the main neuroscience technologies for both observing and influencing brain activity, which are necessary ingredients for human cognitive augmentation. “Detection of anticipatory brain potentials during car driving,” in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE (San Diego, CA: IEEE), 3829–3832.

Thirdly, we briefly review the ethical issues associated with current neuroscience technologies.

These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Pub Med Abstract | Google Scholar Krause, B., and Cohen Kadosh, R. Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation.

The most popular non-invasive technologies for recording neural activity are electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (f NIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

EEG records electrical activity from electrodes placed on the scalp. Our aim here is providing a snapshot of the current state of the art of neuroscience technologies for human cognitive enhancement and a motivated forecast of their most likely developments in the next two decades. Facilitation of probabilistic classification learning by transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in the human. doi: 10.1016/s0028-3932(03)00124-6 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar King-Casas, B., Tomlin, D., Anen, C., Camerer, C. Here, by cognitive enhancement we mean the improvement of the processes of acquiring/generating knowledge and understanding the world around us. One of the main advantages of EEG (Niedermeyer and da Silva, 2005; Luck, 2014) is that it has very good temporal resolution, is relatively inexpensive (compared to other non-invasive recording technologies) and is portable and practical to use, an aspect that is very important when considering the usability outside the lab for cognitive augmentation. f MRI measures brain activity by detecting changes in the blood flow (hemodynamic response) in the brain (Logothetis et al., 2001; Buxton, 2009). “A collaborative BCI approach to autonomous control of a prosthetic limb system,” in IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (San Diego, CA), 1479–1482. It has much better spatial resolution than EEG, but temporal resolution is low. These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials. Based on the lessons learnt in our analysis and using past trends as predictors of future ones, in section 5 we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues. Finally, based on the lessons learned in our analysis, using past trends and considering other related forecasts, we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology for human cognitive augmentation and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues. Human enhancement refers to a very broad range of techniques and approaches aimed at augmenting body or cognitive functions, through performance-enhancing drugs, prosthetics, medical implants, human-computer teaming, etc., that result in improved characteristics and capabilities, sometimes beyond the existing human range (Moore, 2008). Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. doi: 10.1126/science.1108062 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kotchoubey, B., Schleichert, H., Lutzenberger, W., and Birbaumer, N. A new method for self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in a timed paradigm. For two decades many alternative definitions of human enhancement have been proposed and discussed (Parens, 1998; Bostrom, 2005; Agar, 2008; Bostrom and Roache, 2008; Moore, 2008; Savulescu and Bostrom, 2009; Cabrera, 2017), a particular bone of contention being the question of whether an intervention that simply attempts to restore function lost due to illness, injury, or disability could still be identified as enhancement. In this paper, we will focus on a subset of means for human augmentation—neuroscience technologies—and only on one particular area—human cognitive enhancement.

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