It is not possible to simply ask a household whether or not it is vulnerable.
It must be measured through proxies such as tangible assets (land, labor capital, and savings) and intangible assets (social capital, proximity to markets, health and education facilities, and empowerment).
The adverse impact of child labor on test performance is larger when children work regularly rather than occasionally.
Even modest levels of child labor at early ages cause adverse consequences for the development of cognitive abilities.
0704; Publication Date: 03/07by Lorenzo Guarcello and Furio Rosati Ethiopia accounts for the largest youth population in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lack of employment opportunities for Ethiopian young people is among the critical developing challenges facing the country.
The specific factors affecting youth employment in Ethiopia have received little research attention.Adding up these positive and negative effects, their empirical findings suggest that adults who entered the labor market before age 13 earn 20% less per hour, have 26% lower incomes, and are 14% more likely to be in the lowest two income quintiles.Overall, child labor raises the probability of being poor later in life by 13% to 31%. On the other hand, while child labor reduces the productivity of schooling, the net effect of an additional year of schooling on adult wages is still positive, even if the child works while in school.There is therefore limited empirical basis for formulating policies and programs promoting youth employment and successful school to work transitions.This study is aimed at beginning to fill this gap by analyzing a set of youth employment indicators drawn primarily from the 2001 Ethiopia Labor Force Survey.It also provides information on how to adapt existing household questionnaires, problems that may be encountered if changes are implemented and basic information on the administration of household surveys. Orazem and Victoria Gunnarsso Sanchez, Orazem and Gunnarsson use a unique data set on language and mathematics test scores for third and fourth graders in eleven different Latin American countries to determine whether child labor raises or lowers school achievement.The Effect of Child Labor on Mathematics and Language Achievement in Latin America Social Protection Discussion Paper No. Their findings are amazingly consistent across countries.The study looks specifically at the labor market outcomes of young people and key factors influencing these outcomes, including early labor market entry and human capital accumulation.It also examines the process of labor market entry, and, for those who attended school, the duration of the transition from school to work. 0517; Publication Date: 5/05by Diane Steele Studies that have been done on the relationships between poverty, vulnerability, risks and children’s activities have shown that child work may not always be a consequence of poverty, and that some aspects of vulnerability may be more important in determining whether children work or not than others.Income transfer policies should target households broadly rather than on current child labor market status.It may be as important to shore up income in poor households whose children are currently enrolled as to direct income transfers to households in which children currently are out of school.