States that reached the level of cash transfer expenditures proposed by the guidelines of the programme more promptly had a more significant reduction in poverty rates.Similar but less robust results are found for crime rates as robbery, theft and kidnapping, while no significant effects were found for homicide and murder, indicating a weak or non-existent relationship between conditional cash transfers and crime. Official crime statistics and the mass media are the two main causes.
The absolute value of the average impact of positive variations in those variables on property and violent crime rates are statistically smaller than the absolute value of the average effect of negative variations.
These effects are robust under several specifications.
Social factors have always been the leading predictor of crime rates in the United States, but environmental factors such as heavy metals are now also being linked to crime rates.
Social factors including sufficient financial income, a safe living environment, a supportive family, and adequate education have the greatest impact on whether or not a child will grow up to lead a successful life.
The related existing economic literature analysing general welfare programmes usually ignores the crucial endogeneity involved in the relationship between crime rates and social welfare policies through poverty, since poorer regions are focused in the distribution of resources.
I use the existing temporal heterogeneity in the implementation of the programme across the states to identify the causal impact of CCT programmes on poverty and criminality.Neurotoxicity has been linked with mental instability and aggressive behavior; common traits of individuals who commit crimes.There has also been a correlation between individuals living in low income housing and facing higher exposures to heavy metals, in both urban and rural areas.Domestic violence and victimization in poor inner-city areas and closed institutions are significantly under-represented crimes in official statistics despite being a huge problem.White-collar crimes are the most neglected crimes of all, massively under-represented in both official statistics and the media despite being the most damaging to society.I also develop, to my knowledge, the first theoretical model to explicitly account for hysteresis - a situation where positive exogenous variations in the relevant economic variables have a different effect from negative variations - in both criminal behaviour and crime rates in order to fill the gap between the theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence about the efficiency of policies in reducing crime rates.The majority of the theoretical analyses predict a sharp decrease in crime rates when there are significant improvements in the economic conditions or an increase in the probability of punishment.Three-quarters of the Florida prison population has at least one tattoo; the median inmate has three.The data also confirm how generational criminal tattoos are: 85% of prisoners under 35 have tattoos, compared with 43% for prisoners aged 55 and over. A closer inspection of the data reveals a relatively monotonic negative relationship between wages and property crime rates, as well as negative variations in police and most crime rates.However, the relationships between positive variations in law enforcement size and most crime rates are non-linear.