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Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.The states also differ in the subordinate groups that transform a general crime to a hate crime and as to what degree this bias must be shown (e.g., beliefs, character).
For example, some states treat hate crimes as low-severity offenses, while other states have more general hate crime laws or sentence enhancing for crimes that are motivated by bias.
In some states, maximum criminal sentences may be doubled, tripled, or increased even more for a hate crime.
The Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997 requires college and university campus security authorities to collect and report data on crimes committed on the basis of the victim’s race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and disability.
The majority of states have some sort of hate crime legislation, but it differs from state to state.
After the civil war, the American populace developed in their sense of nation as a model to the globe of a national republic of personal rights and political liberty (Franklin & Fitzgerald, 2012).
This aimed at eliminating racism but to date the problem still persists.
Hate crime laws in the United States exist at the federal and state levels.
Although federal and state laws differ, most protected characteristics include race, national origin, ethnicity, and religion.
Not all believe that hate crimes have been a significant problem in society; rather, some see it as a media-exaggerated issue—a product of a society that is highly sensitive to prejudice and discrimination.
Thus, a special set of criminal laws that include hate is not warranted, and the generic criminal laws will suffice.