Many such changes were enacted after the juvenile violent crime rate had already begun to fall.
The rehabilitative model embodied in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, focusing on the needs of the young offender, has lost ever more ground over the past 20 years to punitive models that focus mainly on the offense committed.
A number of cognitive and social features of childhood and adolescence influence the content of juvenile crime policy.
Historically, children under the age of seven have been considered below the age of reason, and therefore unable to formulate the criminal intent necessary to be held accountable for criminal offenses.
What is often missing from discussions of juvenile crime today is recognition that children and adolescents are not just little adults, nor is the world in which they live the world of adults.
Juvenile Delinquency Thesis Research Paper On The Death Penalty
Physical, emotional, and cognitive development continue throughout adolescence.In practice, children younger than age 10 are rarely involved in the juvenile justice system.Arrests of those younger than 10 years old account for less than 2 percent of all juvenile arrests.Creating the appropriate public policy for a period of semiautonomy is no small task (Zimring, 1982).To further complicate the matter, crime rates peak in mid- to late adolescence, making policy toward young offenders of special importance.Emotions can affect decision making for both adolescents and adults.When people are experiencing positive emotions, such as excitement, happiness, love (as adolescents often do when with groups of their peers), they tend to underestimate the possibility of negative consequences to their actions.The main response to the most recent spike in violent juvenile crime has been enactment of laws that further blur distinctions between juvenile courts and adult courts.States continued to toughen their juvenile crime laws in recent years, making sentencing more punitive, expanding allowable transfers to criminal (adult) court, or doing away with some of the confidentiality safeguards of juvenile court.To best answer the questions of how to deal with young offenders requires knowledge of factors in the individual, family, social settings, and community that influence the development of delinquent behavior; of the types of offenses committed by young people; and of the types of interventions that can most efficiently and effectively prevent offending in the first place or prevent its recurrence.This study reviews literature in all of these areas to provide an objective view of juvenile crime and the juvenile justice system in the United States.