Research Papers Internet Radio

Research Papers Internet Radio-53
It was also an important milestone for the rapid globalization that was one of the most significant phenomena of the last century, and of the large-scale social and economic consequences that accompanied it.By today's standards, sending the letter S from one side of the Atlantic to the other is a modest achievement, but Marconi's transmission was the first real-time, speed-of-light, global communication.

It was also an important milestone for the rapid globalization that was one of the most significant phenomena of the last century, and of the large-scale social and economic consequences that accompanied it.By today's standards, sending the letter S from one side of the Atlantic to the other is a modest achievement, but Marconi's transmission was the first real-time, speed-of-light, global communication.60 percent of US adults have Internet access, while in Africa, around one percent of the population is online - half of them in South Africa and virtually none in rural areas.

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The second section of the chapter looks at some of these projects, grouping them into three broad and occasionally overlapping categories: Finally, there are some preliminary conclusions and suggestions for the way forward.

INTERNET FOR DEVELOPMENT A century after Marconi's transmission, the so-called digital divide occupies an important place on the agenda of governments, international agencies, and civil society organisations around the world.

In the past decade the international community has expended tremendous effort and expense in telecom development.

Major initiatives have been taken to encourage the privatization of State telephone monopolies, to invite foreign direct investment in the sector and to introduce competition.

This chapter will first examine characteristics of the two information and communication technologies that feature in this book - radio and the Internet.

We will look at the imbalanced global expansion of the Internet and some of the limitations that this imposes when applying North American or European models for its use in the less-industrialized regions, especially in rural areas.The debates around the digital divide and Internet for development have focused uncovering new areas of global inequality and imagining new opportunities for development.However, with an enthusiasm for the new, these often overlook lessons learned in earlier efforts to understand and change other social, economic and quality of life divides that separate rich countries from poor ones.First, the innovations that accompanied this early radio transmission were the same ones that enabled modern broadcast radio.Technology advanced at the pace we grew accustomed to in the 20 century and only five years after Marconi's historic transatlantic broadcast, radio operators on ships in the Atlantic were surprised to hear a human voice emitting from the Marconi-built equipment instead of the dots and dashes of Morse code.A second similarity between the Internet and development issues such as education and healthcare is that local participation is essential if projects are going to address local problems or be attuned to local capacities.As Alfonso Gumucio points out in his contribution to this book (chapter 2), the history of development aid is strewn with the carcasses of “white elephants”, massive projects that failed because they did not adequately consult with local communities.We will then turn to some of the characteristics that have enabled radio's success in the same regions.The primary argument of this chapter, and indeed of the collection of chapters in the book, is that the combination of the Internet and broadcast radio offers a new and potent range of possibilities for development communication projects.At the beginning of the last century, on 12 December 1901, Guglielmo Marconi, demonstrated the communication potential of radio technology, transmitting three dots, Morse code for the letter “ S”, from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland in what is now Canada.Marconi's 1901 transmission is worth noting here for two reasons.

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