The term direct applicability suggests automatic incorporation into national law without need for further enactment.
Additionally, individuals can invoke regulations both horizontally and vertically; the conditions for reliance upon a regulation are identical to directives in requiring the regulation to be sufficiently clear, precise and unconditional.
Your answer should address direct effect, indirect effect, and state liability in turn, ensuring relevant analysis and evaluation as you go along.
As all three doctrines were created by the Court of Justice, the case law will feature strongly, as the question itself indicates.
Van Gend represented the first step in a long sequence of judgements by the ECJ aimed at ensuring sufficient legal protection for individual rights.2 Nonetheless, the judgement in Van Gend was not a complete job as there was still uncertainty over the capability of treaty articles having horizontal direct effect.3 Horizontal direct effect can be defined as allowing individuals to invoke provisions of EU law against other individuals within the state. 2 actions but also by increasing the ease with which individuals could invoke Treaty Articles to protect their rights through applying the conditions needed for reliance, increasingly loosely.6 The overall effect of both cases was to create and expand direct effect to allow for the protection of individual rights with regards to the provisions of treaty articles.
In Defrenne, the court ruled that treaty articles could be invoked horizontally through an unequivocal decision that the prohibition of discrimination between genders applies not only to the action of public authorities, but also extended to all contracts between individuals.4 Defrenne left no doubt over the potential uses of direct effect concerning treaty articles; direct effect could now be invoked both vertically against the state and horizontally against other individuals in national courts.5 Through Defrenne, the ECJ sought to broaden the scope of direct effect not just by allowing horizontal 1 Case 26/62 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen  Ibid. Regulations Article 288 TFEU states that a regulation shall be “binding in its entirety” and of “direct applicability”.In order for a directive to be of direct effect, it was set out in Van Duyn that the directive must be sufficiently clear, precise and unconditional.9 The ECJ imposed one further condition in Ratti; the ECJ outlined that a member state’s obligation to implement only becomes absolute when the time limit for implementation expires.10 A member state’s failure to implement a directive could not be used to deny the binding effect of a directive past the expiration date and the ECJ’s argument here was one of estoppel.By the same logic that unfairness would arise from allowing a member state to sidestep the obligations of a directive 6 Ibid.Before we embark upon why the Factotame case was brought fort to the court it is extremely important for us to know about the composition of the European Court of Justice.The court is made up of twenty-seven judges, one from each member state.One of these institutions which is extremely important the European Court of Justice as it interprets the laws of the European Union and makes sure that all the laws are applied in the same with in all of the European Union countries.Aside from interpreting laws it also settles legal disputes between the European Union government and the various institutions in the European Union.Due to the large number of cases brought forth to the European Court of Justice, in an effort to better serve the constituents the General Court decides over certain cases. ..of discrimination of any sort and it will not tolerate any acts that are passed any government, which promotes discrimination of any sort. The General Court decides over cases that encompass private individuals, companies and organizations. Works Cited "Clients." Thomas Cooper: Factortame The Background. Additionally, the ECJ asserted that indirect effect could apply to pre-dating and post-dating national legislation.Through broadening the definition of a state body and indirect effect, the ECJ sought to rectify the potential discrimination between different individuals invoking directives and this in turn ensured all individuals were protected.