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Then, after 10,000 BCE, hunters began using bows and arrows to kill elusive and fast-moving game like deer and gazelles.Permanent settlements coincide with the development of agriculture.
Instead, using our brains, we have devised tools and skills that have given us power over the natural world and permitted us to thrive almost everywhere on the planet.
These tools and skills—in a word, technology—have also given some people power over others.
Read more about Transportation Technology Research Paper Topics Humans and their tools evolved symbiotically over millions of years.
The hominid Australopithecines who lived in Africa from 4 to 2.5 million years ago used river cobbles as crude choppers to smash the bones of dead animals.
The size of their brains increased in tandem with their use of tools, while their teeth and jaws grew smaller.
The species Homo sapiens, humans like ourselves, appeared more than 150,000 years ago.To irrigate away from the riverbanks meant digging canals and constructing dikes.In the lower valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) the Sumerians (who arrived in the region between 40 BCE) organized large numbers of workers to carry out these public works projects.Their descendents, members of the species Homo erectus, made hand axes by breaking flakes off both sides of a stone; they also learned how to control fire.With these tools, some hominids hunted big game while others gathered plants and insects.They used well-sweeps (a bucket at the end of a counterbalanced pole) to lift water from the canals to their fields.By the mid-fourth millennium BCE, the resulting food surpluses allowed their leaders to build cities, create governments and laws, and employ artisans, bureaucrats, soldiers, and merchants.Irrigation and water control were the key technologies of several other early civilizations.In northern China, civilization grew out of the need to protect the land from the dangerous floods of the Huang (Yellow) River.The people of Peru built cities with great walls of massive stones that fit together perfectly.Early civilizations also developed other technologies. Women spun thread and wove cloth, some of exquisite beauty, out of flax in Egypt, wool in Mesopotamia and Peru, silk in China, and cotton in India and the Americas. Smiths learned to smelt metals from ores, first copper and later bronze, an alloy of copper and arsenic or tin.