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The inscription which reads "G(ari) F(los) SCO(mbri) SCAURI EX OFFI(CI)NA SCAURI" has been translated as "The flower of garum, made of the mackerel, a product of Scaurus, from the shop of Scaurus" Umbricius Scauras, for example, was a manufacturer of fish sauce (also known as garum) in Pompeii, circa 35 C. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house were decorated with images of amphora bearing his personal brand and quality claims.
Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection, utility and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions" (p. She has shown that amphoras used in Mediterranean trade between 1500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which provided information for transactions.
Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE.
Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L.
Eumachius;" probably references to the name of the producer.
These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding.
Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which over time were transformed into clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality.However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.From as early as 200 BCE, Chinese packaging and branding was used to signal family, place names and product quality, and the use of government imposed product branding was used between 600 and 900 AD.Marketing practitioners engage in innovative practices that capture the attention of marketing scholars who codify and disseminate such practices.At the same time, marketing academics often develop new research methods or theories that are subsequently adopted by practitioners.Carbonised loaves of bread, found at Herculaneum, indicate that some bakers stamped their bread with the producer's name.David Wengrow has argued that branding became necessary following the urban revolution in ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th century BCE, when large-scale economies started mass-producing commodities such as alcoholic drinks, cosmetics and textiles.This means that the two branches ask very different types of research questions and employ different research tools and frameworks.while yet other researchers suggest that modern marketing was only fully realised in the decades following the industrial revolution in Britain from where it subsequently spread to Europe and North America.Hollander and others have suggested that the different dates for the emergence of marketing can be explained by problems surrounding the way that marketing has been defined - whether reference to 'modern marketing' as a planned, programmed repertoire of professional practice including activities such as segmentation, product differentiation, positioning and marketing communications versus 'marketing' as a simple form distribution and exchange.Mosaic showing garum container, from the house of Umbricius Scaurus of Pompeii.