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Automated essay scoring (AES) is the use of specialized computer programs to assign grades to essays written in an educational setting.It is a method of educational assessment and an application of natural language processing.In contrast to the other models mentioned above, this model is closer in duplicating human insight while grading essays.
Before computers entered the picture, high-stakes essays were typically given scores by two trained human raters.
If the scores differed by more than one point, a third, more experienced rater would settle the disagreement.
The use of AES for high-stakes testing in education has generated significant backlash, with opponents pointing to research that computers cannot yet grade writing accurately and arguing that their use for such purposes promotes teaching writing in reductive ways (i.e. As early as 1982, a UNIX program called Writer's Workbench was able to offer punctuation, spelling, and grammar advice. Online Writing Evaluation Service uses the e-rater engine to provide both scores and targeted feedback.
It is now a product from Pearson Educational Technologies and used for scoring within a number of commercial products and state and national exams. Lawrence Rudner has done some work with Bayesian scoring, and developed a system called BETSY (Bayesian Essay Test Scoring s Ystem).
Some of his results have been published in print or online, but no commercial system incorporates BETSY as yet.
Under the leadership of Howard Mitzel and Sue Lottridge, Pacific Metrics developed a constructed response automated scoring engine, CRASE®.
Among them are percent agreement, Scott's π, Cohen's κ, Krippendorf's α, Pearson's correlation coefficient r, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient.
Percent agreement is a simple statistic applicable to grading scales with scores from 1 to n, where usually 4 ≤ n ≤ 6.
The program evaluates surface features of the text of each essay, such as the total number of words, the number of subordinate clauses, or the ratio of uppercase to lowercase letters—quantities that can be measured without any human insight.
It then constructs a mathematical model that relates these quantities to the scores that the essays received.